Extensive Research & Studies Conducted

Heart Rate Variability Studies

Heart Rate Variability Studies

There are over 1200 articles of published literature on the three VS Diagnostics tests.
Below please find a selection of representative articles with regards to HRV Studies:

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as a Tool for Diagnostic and Monitoring Performance in Sport and Physical Activities

Bojan Makivić, Marina Djordjević Nikić, Monte S. Willis

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Briefly: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as a Tool for Diagnostic and Monitoring Performance in Sport and Physical Activities. The dynamic autonomic responses during exercise can be measured to give actionable information for training by analysis of the ECG to determine heart rate variability (HRV). While application of HRV has been applied to predict sudden cardiac death and diabetic neuropathy in assessing disease progression, recent studies have suggested that it may be applied to exercise training. In this review, we present the rationale for measuring HRV. Despite the studies that vary widely in their application to different training levels of athletes being tested and HRV measures used, the standardization of methodologies and results should help accelerate the use of HRV in sports training.

Heart rate variability and first cardiovascular event in populations without known cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis and dose–response meta-regression

Stefanie Hillebrand, Karin B. Gast, Rene´e de Mutsert, Cees A. Swenne, J. Wouter Jukema, Saskia Middeldorp, Frits R. Rosendaal, and Olaf M. Dekkers

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Briefly: Heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with known CVD. It is less clear whether HRV is associated with a first cardiovascular event. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to study the association between HRV and incident cardiovascular events in populations without known CVD.

In conclusion, low HRV is associated with a 32–45% increased risk of a first cardiovascular event in populations without known CVD. An increase in SDNN of 1% results in an 1% lower risk of fatal or non-fatal CVD.

The relationship of autonomic imbalance, heart rate variability and cardiovascular disease risk factors

Julian F. Thayer, Shelby S. Yamamoto, Jos F. Brosschot

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Briefly: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The understanding of the risk factors for CVD may yield important insights into the prevention, etiology, course, and treatment of this major public health concern. Autonomic imbalance, characterized by a hyperactive sympathetic system and a hypoactive parasympathetic system, is associated with various pathological conditions. Over time, excessive energy demands on the system can lead to premature aging and diseases. Therefore, autonomic imbalance may be a final common pathway to increased morbidity and mortality from a host of conditions and diseases, including cardiovascular disease.

Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease

Virend K. Somers, MD, DPhil, FAHA, FACC, Chair; David P. White, MD, Co-Chair; Raouf Amin, MD, Co-Chair; William T. Abraham, MD, FAHA, FACC; Fernando Costa, MD, FAHA; Antonio Culebras, MD, FAHA; Stephen Daniels, MD, PhD, FAHA; John S. Floras, MD, DPhil, FAHA, FACC; Carl E. Hunt, MD; Lyle J. Olson, MD, FACC; Thomas G. Pickering, MD, DPhil, FAHA; Richard Russell, MD, FAHA, FACC; Mary Woo, RN, PhD, FAHA; Terry Young, PhD

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Briefly: Sleep-related breathing disorders are highly prevalent in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects an estimated 15 million adult Americans and is present in a large proportion of patients with hypertension and in those with other cardiovascular disorders, including coronary artery disease, stroke, and atrial fibrillation.1–14 In contrast, central sleep apnea (CSA) occurs mainly in patients with heart failure.15–19 The purpose of this Scientific Statement is to describe the types and prevalence of sleep apnea and its relevance to individuals who either are at risk for or already have established cardiovascular disease. Special emphasis is given to recognizing the patient with cardiovascular disease who has coexisting sleep apnea, to understanding the mechanisms by which sleep apnea may contribute to the progression of the cardiovascular condition, and to identifying strategies for treatment.